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Search terms: exosomes OR "extracellular vesicles" OR microvesicles OR microparticles. Direct link to the PubMed search here.

Release the ballast: Glioblastoma rises above radiation therapy by exporting miR-603 in extracellular vesicles to become treatment-resistant.

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Release the ballast: Glioblastoma rises above radiation therapy by exporting miR-603 in extracellular vesicles to become treatment-resistant.

EBioMedicine. 2020 Jun 02;56:102788

Authors: Bayik D, Watson DC, Lathia JD

PMID: 32502962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Characterization of plastic micro particles in the Atlantic Ocean seashore of Cape Town, South Africa and mass spectrometry analysis of pyrolyzate products.

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Characterization of plastic micro particles in the Atlantic Ocean seashore of Cape Town, South Africa and mass spectrometry analysis of pyrolyzate products.

Environ Pollut. 2020 May 26;265(Pt A):114859

Authors: Vilakati B, Sivasankar V, Mamba BB, Omine K, Msagati TAM

Abstract
The microplastic particles with 29 pyrolyzate compounds of marine water samples from the seashore locations in Cape Town, South Africa were analysed using Pyrolysis- GC-TOF-MS. The mass spectra data documented the presence of various chemical groups that include alkanes, alkenes, dienes, fatty acids and esters, biphenyl and benzene (along with derivatives). Out of 16 identified polymers in the study area, polythene (PE) was the dominant in six out of seven locations with 87.5% followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) in five (71.4%) and four (57.1%) out of seven locations respectively. The other constituent polymers of microplastics identified through pyrolyzates were polystyrene (PS), polyamide 12 (PA-12) polyacrylic acid (PAA) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer. The microplastic samples contained six additives predominantly in the family of fatty acid esters and nine plasticizers from alcohols, carboxylic esters and acids. The base peaks of m/z 41, 43, 55, 57, 69, 73, 91, 102, 105, 127 and 154 were characterized respectively with the fragmented species of C3H5+, C3H7+, C4H7+, C4H9+, C5H9+, C3H5O2+, C7H7+, C3H10O2+(McLafferty ion), C8H9+, C8H15O+ and C12H10+. Accordingly to Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of hazard classification, about 27.4% of pyrolyzates are Irritants, 31.4% of pyrolyzates found to be Irritants along with other hazards such as Flammable, Compressed Gas, Environmental Hazard, Corrosive, Health Hazard, Acute Toxicity and Allergy. About 41.2% of the pyrolyzates are not classified under the Irritant category. Characterizations of the plastic microparticles from the seven seashore locations such as FTIR, SEM with EDX and TGA were also done and discussed to understand the functional groups, surface morphology with elemental composition and stability respectively of the polymeric microparticles.

PMID: 32502872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Vascular endothelial cell-derived exosomes protect neural stem cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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Vascular endothelial cell-derived exosomes protect neural stem cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Neuroscience. 2020 Jun 02;:

Authors: Zhou S, Gao B, Sun C, Bai Y, Cheng D, Zhang Y, Li X, Zhao J, Xu D

Abstract
Vascular endothelial cells were activated during acute ischemic brain injury, which could induce neural progenitor cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanism was still unknown. In the current study, we explored whether vascular endothelial cells promoted neural progenitor cell proliferation and whether migration occurs via exosome communication. The acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was prepared, and exosomes were isolated from bEnd.3 cells by ultracentrifugation. In the exosome injection (Exos) group and PBS injection (control) group, exosomes or PBS were injected intraventricularly into rats' brains 2 hours after MCAO surgery, respectively. Sham group rats received the same surgical but did not cause middle cerebral artery occlusion. The infarct volume was reduced on day 21 after ischemic brain injury by MRI, and neurobehavioral outcomes were improved on day 7, 14, and 21 by exosome injection compared with the control (p<0.05). On the 21st day after MCAO, the animals were euthanized, and the number of BrdU/nestin-positive cells was measured by immunofluorescence. BrdU/nestin-positive cells in Exos group rats were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the peri infarct area, the ipsilateral DG zone of the hippocampus, and the ventral sub-regions of SVZ when compared with the rats in the control group. Further, in vitro study demonstrated that neural progenitor cell proliferation and migration were activated after exosomes treatment, and cell apoptosis was attenuated compared to the control (p<0.05). Our study suggested that exosomes should be essential for the reconstruction of neuronal vascular units and brain protection in an acute ischemic injured brain.

PMID: 32502570 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosomes: A New Effective Non-Surgical Therapy for Androgenetic Alopecia?

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Exosomes: A New Effective Non-Surgical Therapy for Androgenetic Alopecia?

Skinmed. 2020;18(2):96-100

Authors: Gupta AK, Renaud HJ, Halaas Y, Rapaport JA

Abstract
Exosome therapy is a promising new approach for the treatment of hair loss. Current treatments for androgenetic alopecia, the most common form of hair loss, fall short of providing satisfactory efficacy with minimal side effects; thus, the fact that exosome therapy delivers impressive hair growth with no reported adverse events makes this therapy an attractive avenue to be explored; nevertheless, due to the novelty of this treatment, clinical trials to confirm its efficacy and safety are lacking. The current state of knowledge that is publicly available on the efficacy of exosome therapy for treatment of hair loss is reviewed, and the potential of exosomes as an alternate therapy for hair restoration is discussed.

PMID: 32501792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Advances in the development of gene therapy, noncoding RNA, and exosome-based treatments for tendinopathy.

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Advances in the development of gene therapy, noncoding RNA, and exosome-based treatments for tendinopathy.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 Jun 05;:

Authors: Ilaltdinov AW, Gong Y, Leong DJ, Gruson KI, Zheng D, Fung DT, Sun L, Sun HB

Abstract
Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and tissue degeneration. Tendons have poor innate healing ability and there is currently no cure for tendinopathy. Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and mechanisms mediating the genesis of tendons during development have provided novel targets and strategies to enhance tendon healing and repair. This review summarizes the current understanding and treatments for tendinopathy. The review also highlights recent advances in gene therapy, the potential of noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, and exosomes, which are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles secreted from cells, for the treatment of tendinopathy.

PMID: 32501571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Extracellular vesicles as actors in the air pollution related cardiopulmonary diseases.

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Extracellular vesicles as actors in the air pollution related cardiopulmonary diseases.

Crit Rev Toxicol. 2020 Jun 05;:1-22

Authors: Alkoussa S, Hulo S, Courcot D, Billet S, Martin PJ

Abstract
Many associations were reported between air pollution and daily mortality rates for cardiopulmonary diseases. Humans are exposed to a mixture of oxidizing gases and particles, both anthropogenic and natural. Exposure to air toxics causes or exacerbates cardiovascular damages and respiratory diseases. Numerous studies have identified the induction of oxidative stress and sustained inflammatory response as among the main known underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of air pollutants. More recently, the relationship between these mechanisms of action and the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) by lung cells has been revealed. EVs have been shown to be important mediators of cellular communication in the body. The purpose of this review is to first recall the main air pollutants. Then, the cardiopulmonary diseases caused by exposure to air pollution and the pathophysiological mechanisms are presented before showing, through an exhaustive review of the literature, the involvement of EVs in the toxicity of air pollutants and the initiation of cardiopulmonary diseases.

PMID: 32500824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Liquid biopsy markers for stroke diagnosis.

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Liquid biopsy markers for stroke diagnosis.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2020 Jun 05;:

Authors: Wijerathne H, Witek MA, Baird AE, Soper SA

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: There is a short time window (4.5 h) for the effective treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), which uses recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Unfortunately, this short therapeutic timeframe is a contributing factor to the relatively small number of patients (~7%) that receive rt-PA. While neuroimaging is the major diagnostic for AIS, more timely decisions could be made using a molecular diagnostic.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, we survey neuroimaging techniques used to diagnose stroke and their limitations. We also highlight the potential of various molecular/cellular biomarkers, especially peripheral blood-based (i.e., liquid biopsy) biomarkers, for diagnosing stroke to allow for precision decisions on managing stroke in a timely manner. Both protein and nucleic acid molecular biomarkers are reviewed. In particular, mRNA markers are discussed for AIS and hemorrhagic stroke diagnosis sourced from both cells and extracellular vesicles.
EXPERT OPINION: While there are a plethora of molecular markers for stroke diagnosis that have been reported, they have yet to be FDA-cleared. Possible reasons include the inability for these markers to appear in sufficient quantities for highly sensitive clinical decisions within the rt-PA therapeutic time.

PMID: 32500751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Association of CD8 T cell apoptosis and EGFR mutation in non-small lung cancer patients.

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Association of CD8 T cell apoptosis and EGFR mutation in non-small lung cancer patients.

Thorac Cancer. 2020 Jun 04;:

Authors: Zhao C, Su C, Li X, Zhou C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The abundance of tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells is an important parameter for antitumor effect of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, which is less in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation than wild-type non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mechanism still requires further study.
METHODS: In total 190 surgical lung adenocarcinoma samples were included. EGFR mutation was detected using amplification-refractory mutation system. CD8 T cells and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining in tumor samples. Exosomes extracted from lung cancer cell lines with and without EGFR mutation were used to test the function of promoting apoptosis in vitro.
RESULTS: The ratio of CD8 tumor infiltration lymphocytes was significantly lower in EGFR-mutant than in wild-type patients (P = 0.026). A higher ratio of apoptosis was also prone to occur in EGFR-mutant patients (P = 0.035). The distribution of apoptosis was not statistically associated with the ratio of CD8 TILs. An in vitro experiment indicated that exosomes secreted by EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines PC9 and HCC827 were more capable of promoting CD8 T cell apoptosis than EGFR wild-type cell lines H1299 and SK-MES-1 (P = 0.007 and P = 0.010, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Non-small cell lung cancer EGFR mutation could promote CD8 T cell apoptosis more than wild-type. Inhibiting CD8 + TILs apoptosis may strengthen immunotherapy effects in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients.

PMID: 32500560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Tumor Microenvironment in Cholangiocarcinoma Progression.

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The Tumor Microenvironment in Cholangiocarcinoma Progression.

Hepatology. 2020 Jun 04;:

Authors: Fabris L, Sato K, Alpini G, Strazzabosco M

Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive and heterogeneous malignancy of the biliary tree. A typical hallmark of CCA is that cancer cells are embedded into a dense stroma containing fibrogenic cells, lymphatics and a variety of immune cells. Functional roles of the reactive tumor stroma are not fully elucidated; however, recent studies suggest that the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in the progression and invasiveness of CCA. CCA cells exchange autocrine/paracrine signals with other cancer cells and the infiltrating cell types that populate the microenvironment. This crosstalk is under the control of signals mediated by various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. In addition, extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, containing cargo mediators, such as proteins and RNAs, play a key role in cell-to-cell communication, and particularly in epigenetic regulation thanks to their content in miRNAs. Both cytokine- and EV-mediated communications between CCA cells and other liver cells provide a potential novel target for the management of CCA. This review summarizes current understandings of the tumor microenvironment and intercellular communications in CCA and their role in tumor progression.

PMID: 32500550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Transformation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells by Leukemia Extracellular Vesicles: A Step Toward Leukemogenesis.

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Transformation of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells by Leukemia Extracellular Vesicles: A Step Toward Leukemogenesis.

Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2020 Jun 04;:

Authors: Samii A, Razmkhah F

Abstract
Regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) self-renewal, expansion, and differentiation is an inevitable process for normal hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM) niche, where leukemia cells are born, proliferate and occupy the microenvironment. External mediators such as extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from leukemia cells, are one of the most important cell to cell communicators, and leading to phenotype and genotype modification and subsequently, fate of the cell. This review highlights recent evidences about the possible roles of leukemia derived-EVs on maintenance, proliferation, and death of HSPCs in a same microenvironment as leukemia cells. In addition, it focuses on mechanisms involved in the transformation of BM niche in favor of leukemia microenvironment remodeling by leukemia derived-EVs.

PMID: 32500481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosome-mediated delivery of miR-30a sensitize cisplatin-resistant variant of oral squamous carcinoma cells via modulating Beclin1 and Bcl2.

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Exosome-mediated delivery of miR-30a sensitize cisplatin-resistant variant of oral squamous carcinoma cells via modulating Beclin1 and Bcl2.

Oncotarget. 2020 May 19;11(20):1832-1845

Authors: Kulkarni B, Gondaliya P, Kirave P, Rawal R, Jain A, Garg R, Kalia K

Abstract
Exosomes facilitate cross-talk amongst tumor cells, and thus also possess the potential to influence tumor-microenvironment and chemo-resistance. miRNAs, the important constituent of exosomes, are often dysregulated in cancer. They have been shown to play an essential role in tumor progression, metastasis, invasion, and resistance developed against different therapies. Acquisition of cisplatin-chemoresistance remains a major hurdle in the effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we demonstrate the importance of exosome-mediated miR-30a transfer in conferring cisplatin sensitivity in the otherwise resistant OSCC cells. Notably, miR-30a was found to be significantly reduced in exosomes isolated from the serum of OSCC patients, especially those having disease-recurrence, post cisplatin treatment. In conjunction with the findings in clinical samples, decreased miR-30a expression was observed in vitro in the cisplatin-resistant cultured OSCC cells compared to the cisplatin-sensitive cells. Besides, we identified Beclin1, an autophagy-related marker, as a target of miR-30a and found it to be overexpressed in cisplatin-resistant OSCC cells, thus indicating at its possible negative-regulation by miR30a. Exosomes from the cisplatin-resistant cells that have been transfected with miR-30a mimics, when delivered to the naïve cisplatin-resistant cells, caused not only the significant enhancements in miR-30a expression but also a concomitant decrease in Beclin1 and Bcl2 expression (autophagic and anti-apoptotic marker). More importantly, this together resulted in the sensitization of cisplatin-resistant cells. Thus, our study highlighted the role of exosomal-mediated miR-30a transfer in regaining sensitivity of the cisplatin-resistant OSCC cells via Beclin1 and Bcl2 regulation and hence suggests at its potential therapeutic role.

PMID: 32499869 [PubMed]

The Tumor Microenvironment: A Milieu Hindering and Obstructing Antitumor Immune Responses.

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The Tumor Microenvironment: A Milieu Hindering and Obstructing Antitumor Immune Responses.

Front Immunol. 2020;11:940

Authors: Labani-Motlagh A, Ashja-Mahdavi M, Loskog A

Abstract
The success of cancer immunotherapy relies on the knowledge of the tumor microenvironment and the immune evasion mechanisms in which the tumor, stroma, and infiltrating immune cells function in a complex network. The potential barriers that profoundly challenge the overall clinical outcome of promising therapies need to be fully identified and counteracted. Although cancer immunotherapy has increasingly been applied, we are far from understanding how to utilize different strategies in the best way and how to combine therapeutic options to optimize clinical benefit. This review intends to give a contemporary and detailed overview of the different roles of immune cells, exosomes, and molecules acting in the tumor microenvironment and how they relate to immune activation and escape. Further, current and novel immunotherapeutic options will be discussed.

PMID: 32499786 [PubMed - in process]

LncRNA PVT1 promotes exosome secretion through YKT6, RAB7, and VAMP3 in pancreatic cancer.

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LncRNA PVT1 promotes exosome secretion through YKT6, RAB7, and VAMP3 in pancreatic cancer.

Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jun 04;12:

Authors: Sun C, Wang P, Dong W, Liu H, Sun J, Zhao L

Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Cancer cells secrete excessive numbers of exosomes that play essential roles in tumorigenesis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential non-coding RNAs for cancer progression. However, the role of lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) in exosome secretion of PC remains to be comprehensively investigated. Thus, nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy were performed to determine exosome secretion. Confocal microscopy, western blots, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays, and rescue experiments were applied to investigate the mechanism underlying the role of PVT1 in exosome secretion. The results showed that PVT1 was upregulated in PC cells, along with increased levels of YKT6 v-SNARE homolog (YKT6), ras-related protein Rab-7 (RAB7), and vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3). Also, PVT1 promoted the transportation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) towards the plasma membrane. In addition, PVT1 promoted the docking of MVBs by altering RAB7 expression and localization. Moreover, PVT1 promoted the fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane through regulating YKT6 and VAMP3 colocalization and the palmitoylation of YKT6. Taken together, the results suggest that PVT1 promoted exosome secretion of PC cells and thus, can expand the understanding of PVT1 in tumor biology.

PMID: 32499447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Microvesicles and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patency: Double Trouble or a Chance for Personalized Surgery?

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Microvesicles and Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patency: Double Trouble or a Chance for Personalized Surgery?

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Jun 09;75(22):2833-2835

Authors: Fremes SE, Tam DY

PMID: 32498811 [PubMed - in process]

Association of Microvesicles With Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing CABG Surgery.

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Association of Microvesicles With Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing CABG Surgery.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Jun 09;75(22):2819-2832

Authors: Camera M, Brambilla M, Canzano P, Cavallotti L, Parolari A, Tedesco CC, Zara C, Rossetti L, Tremoli E

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Graft patency is one of the major determinants of long-term outcome following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Biomarkers, if indicative of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, would suggest strategies to limit graft failure. The prognostic value of microvesicles (MVs) for midterm graft patency has never been tested.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MV pre-operative signature (number, cellular origin, procoagulant phenotype) could predict midterm graft failure and to investigate potential functional role of MVs in graft occlusion.
METHODS: This was a nested case-control substudy of the CAGE (CoronAry bypass grafting: factors related to late events and Graft patency) study that enrolled 330 patients undergoing elective CABG. Of these, 179 underwent coronary computed tomography angiography 18 months post-surgery showing 24% graft occlusion. Flow cytometry MV analysis was performed in 60 patients (30 per group with occluded [cases] and patent [control subjects] grafts) on plasma samples collected the day before surgery and at follow-up.
RESULTS: Before surgery, cases had 2- and 4-fold more activated platelet-derived and tissue-factor positive MVs respectively than control subjects. The MV procoagulant capacity was also significantly greater. Altogether this MV signature properly classified graft occlusion (area under the curve 0.897 [95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 0.98]; p < 0.0001). By using an MV score (0 to 6), the odds ratio for occlusion for a score above 3 was 16.3 (95% confidence interval: 4.1 to 65.3; p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The pre-operative signature of MVs is independently associated with midterm graft occlusion in CABG patients and a cumulative MV score stratifies patients' risk. Because the MV signature mirrors platelet activation, patients with a high MV score could benefit from a personalized antiplatelet therapy.

PMID: 32498810 [PubMed - in process]

Extracellular Vesicles Enriched in hsa-miR-301a-3p and hsa-miR-1293 Dynamics in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: Potential Biomarkers of Metastatic Disease.

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Extracellular Vesicles Enriched in hsa-miR-301a-3p and hsa-miR-1293 Dynamics in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients: Potential Biomarkers of Metastatic Disease.

Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jun 02;12(6):

Authors: Dias F, Teixeira AL, Nogueira I, Morais M, Maia J, Bodo C, Ferreira M, Silva A, Vilhena M, Lobo J, Sequeira JP, Maurício J, Oliveira J, Kok K, Costa-Silva B, Medeiros R

Abstract
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most aggressive subtype of kidney cancer and up to 40% of patients submitted to surgery with a curative intent will relapse. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the applicability of an Extracellular vesicle (EV) derived miRNA profile as potential prognosis biomarkers in ccRCC patients. We analyzed a nine-miRNA profile in plasma EVs from 32 ccRCC patients with localized disease (before and after surgery) and in 37 patients with metastatic disease. We observed that the levels of EV-derived hsa-miR-25-3p, hsa-miR-126-5p, hsa-miR-200c-3p, and hsa-miR-301a-3p decreased after surgery, whereas hsa-miR-1293 EV-levels increased. Furthermore, metastatic patients presented higher levels of hsa-miR-301a-3p and lower levels of hsa-miR-1293 when compared to patients with localized disease after surgery. Functional enrichment analysis of the targets of the four miRNAs that decreased after surgery resulted in an enrichment of terms related to cell cycle, proliferation, and metabolism, suggesting that EV-miRNA enrichment in the presence of the tumor could represent an epigenetic mechanism to sustain tumor development. Taken together, these results suggest that EVs content varies depending on the presence or absence of the disease and that an increase of EV-derived hsa-miR-301a-3p, and decrease of EV-derived hsa-miR-1293, may be potential biomarkers of metastatic ccRCC.

PMID: 32498409 [PubMed]

Arginase-1+ Exosomes from Reprogrammed Macrophages Promote Glioblastoma Progression.

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Arginase-1+ Exosomes from Reprogrammed Macrophages Promote Glioblastoma Progression.

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 02;21(11):

Authors: Azambuja JH, Ludwig N, Yerneni SS, Braganhol E, Whiteside TL

Abstract
Interactions between tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical for glioblastoma progression. The TAMs represent up to 30% of the glioblastoma mass. The role of TAMs in tumor progression and in the mechanisms underlying tumor growth remain unclear. Using an in vitro model resembling the crosstalk between macrophages and glioblastoma cells, we show that glioblastoma-derived exosomes (GBex) reprogram M1 (mediate pro-inflammatory function) and M2 (mediate anti-inflammatory function) macrophages, converting M1 into TAMs and augmenting pro-tumor functions of M2 macrophages. In turn, these GBex-reprogrammed TAMs, produce exosomes decorated by immunosuppressive and tumor-growth promoting proteins. TAM-derived exosomes disseminate these proteins in the tumor microenvironment (TME) promoting tumor cell migration and proliferation. Mechanisms underlying the promotion of glioblastoma growth involved Arginase-1+ exosomes produced by the reprogrammed TAMs. A selective Arginase-1 inhibitor, nor-NOHA reversed growth-promoting effects of Arginase-1 carried by TAM-derived exosomes. The data suggest that GBex-reprogrammed Arginase-1+ TAMs emerge as a major source of exosomes promoting tumor growth and as a potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

PMID: 32498400 [PubMed - in process]

Microencapsulation of Pineapple Peel Extract by Spray Drying Using Maltodextrin, Inulin, and Arabic Gum as Wall Matrices.

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Microencapsulation of Pineapple Peel Extract by Spray Drying Using Maltodextrin, Inulin, and Arabic Gum as Wall Matrices.

Foods. 2020 Jun 02;9(6):

Authors: Lourenço SC, Moldão-Martins M, Alves VD

Abstract
A pineapple peel hydroalcoholic extract rich in phenolic compounds, was stabilized by microencapsulation using spray drying technology, with maltodextrin, inulin, and arabic gum as wall materials. The influence of the type of wall material and drying temperature (150 and 190 °C) on the particles properties was studied. The particles presented a spherical shape with a diameter ranging from approximately 1.3 to 18.2 µm, the exception being the ones with inulin that showed a large degree of agglomeration. All powders produced presented an intermediate cohesiveness and a fair to good flowability according to Carr index and Hausner ratio, which envisages suitable handling properties at an industrial scale. The microencapsulation processes using maltodextrin and arabic gum at 150 °C were the ones that showed higher maintenance of the antioxidant activity of compounds present in the extract before encapsulation during spray drying. In addition, the microparticles obtained were quite efficient in stabilizing the encapsulated phenolic compounds, as their antioxidant activity did not change significantly during six months of storage at 5 °C.

PMID: 32498295 [PubMed]

The Long and Short of It: The Emerging Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Small Extracellular Vesicles.

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The Long and Short of It: The Emerging Roles of Non-Coding RNA in Small Extracellular Vesicles.

Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jun 02;12(6):

Authors: Abramowicz A, Story MD

Abstract
Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in intercellular communication through their non-coding RNA (ncRNA) cargo. While the initial examination of EV cargo identified both mRNA and miRNA, later studies revealed a wealth of other types of EV-related non-randomly packed ncRNAs, including tRNA and tRNA fragments, Y RNA, piRNA, rRNA, and lncRNA. A number of potential roles for these ncRNA species were suggested, with strong evidence provided in some cases, whereas the role for other ncRNA is more speculative. For example, long non-coding RNA might be used as a potential diagnostic tool but might also mediate resistance to certain cancer-specific chemotherapy agents. piRNAs, on the other hand, have a significant role in genome integrity, however, no role has yet been defined for the piRNAs found in EVs. While our knowledgebase for the function of ncRNA-containing EVs is still modest, the potential role that these EV-ensconced ncRNA might play is promising. This review summarizes the ncRNA content of EVs and describes the function where known, or the potential utility of EVs that harbor specific types of ncRNA.

PMID: 32498257 [PubMed]

 

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